Read more about FIRO®

Evolution & Model

The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation–Behavior™ (FIRO-B®) instrument was created in the late 1950s by William Schutz, PhD. Schutz developed the FIRO-B theory to aid in the understanding and predicting of how high-performance military teams would work together.

In addition to his own observations of group behavior, Schutz was influenced by the psychological literature, including the works of Freud, Adorno, Fromm, Adler, and Jung, among others. He posited that interpersonal needs could be grouped into three categories: Inclusion, Control, and Affection.

The FIRO-B model describes the interaction of these three categories of interpersonal need along two dimensions: expressed and wanted. The FIRO-B instrument can also be used in conjunction with the MBTI® instrument for leadership development with the Leadership Report Using FIRO-B® and MBTI® and in team-building workshops


The FIRO-B™ is ideally suited to:

Team building and team development:Identifying likely sources of compatibility or tension; identifying leadership style; aiding effective decision making; improving communication, openness and trust; and resolving conflicts

Individual development:Increasing self-awareness and interpersonal effectiveness as part of the coaching process, career development or personal growth

Relationship Counselling:Identifying and resolving possible sources of incompatibility and dissatisfaction

Selection and placement: The FIRO-B tool can help to structure interviews and assess likely team roles or interpersonal behavior, but only in combination with other assessment techniques.


The FIRO-B® & FIRO Business instruments generate a wide range of reports that can be customized per your need and budget.

  • Leadership Report Using the FIRO-B® and MBTI®: Explores a person's leadership and communication styles.
  • FIRO-B® Profile: Provides a basic summary of FIRO-B® scores.
  • FIRO-B® Interpretive Report: Interprets results in terms of team and organizational effectiveness.
  • FIRO Business Profile: Developed specifically for use in business environments and ideal for leadership development.
  • FIRO Business Leadership Report: Provides insight into communication styles and behavior that affect leadership performance.
To view sample reports click here

Reliability and Validity

Across a U.S. national sample of 3,091 individuals, results indicate that reliability coefficients for all measures are satisfactory, ranging from .85 to .96 (Hammer & Schnell, 2000). Test-retest reliability coefficients also demonstrate good reliability—ranging from .71 to .85—for three different samples reported in the FIRO-B® Technical Guide (Hammer & Schnell, 2000). Research results also support the validity of the instrument, showing it to be related to measures of leadership (e.g., Fiedler's Least Preferred Co-worker scale, -.43 to .46), and relationships (-.03 to .27) (Hammer & Schnell, 2000).


A wide variety of resources including technical guides and practical application booklets can help you understand and use the FIRO-B ® and FIRO Business instruments in your life. These are also available on the Anahat Store.

  • FIRO-B® Technical Guide: Provides current information on the interpretation and uses of the instrument.
  • Introduction to the FIRO-B®Instrument: Shows how to incorporate FIRO-B®r esults into work and personal lives.
  • Introduction to the FIRO-B®Instrument in Organizations: Looks at interpersonal needs and behaviors in the workplace.
  • Participating in Teams: Explores FIRO-B® results in team situations.
  • Introduction to the FIRO Business® Instrument: Apply FIRO Business® results specifically within business contexts.
  • FIRO Business® Technical Guide: Provides technical background on the construction and use of the FIRO Business® instrument.

Case Studies

Advancing Leadership Skills to Build a Safer Health System

This case study explores the Center's health care leadership programs and their use of the leadership assessments designed by The Myers-Briggs Company to advance broad improvement in the nation's health care system.