Dilemmas Series

PSI’s Dilemmas Series is a suite of standardised and well-validated Situational Judgement tests (SJTs) created to measure key competencies to help you sift, screen and hire employees easily, especially in high volume recruitment settings. On the Dilemmas Series, candidates are asked to rate the effectiveness of various responses to realistic work-related scenarios, enabling you to sift large numbers of candidates effectively and efficiently. These scenarios have been created through extensive research on role-specific competencies. Each of these scenarios and their effective responses have been validated by subject matter experts and by performance data of the repondents. The Dilemmas Series is a reliable, valid and effective means to sift large volume of candidates in specific roles.

Evolution and Model

Situation Judgement Tests (SJTs) measure the candidates' ability to apply discretion and make sound judgements in critical work areas. SJTs are designed to measure a mix of different individual attributes including but not limited to cognitive ability, crystallised intelligence, personality traits, attitudes and skills. SJTs, when used right, can be reliable and valid ways of sifting candidates in a selection process. SJTs work best when they are well-researched for job-specific requirements, are job specific and validated scientifically. In a 2007 meta-analysis study, SJTs were found to provide incremental predictive validity over and above personality and cognitive abilities (Michael et al., 2007). The Dilemmas™ Series works off over four decades worth of research on what makes SJTs valid predictors of job performance. The Dilemmas™ Series is job specific and has leveraged thorough research in the five roles. Through its questions and scenarios, the Dilemmas™ Series identifies behaviours which are most valued and most predictive of high performance in these roles. It comprises five role-specific situational judgement tests, each measuring distinct sets of competencies as relevant to five different roles, namely, Administrative, Graduate (trainee), Customer Service, Call Centre and Management roles.


The Dilemma Series is a useful tool for sifting, screening and selection for various roles.
  • The Administrative Dilemmas™ can be used for sifting candidates into administrative, clerical or secretarial roles within organisations across a range of industry sectors. Competencies assessed are Planning & Organising, Service Orientation, Effective Communication, Achieving Results and Teamwork. Find out more here.
  • The Graduate Dilemmas™ can be used for sifting graduates into a range of organisations, industry sectors and job functions. There are three alternate forms of the test available, to enable users to rotate forms for different assessment projects. Competencies assessed are Planning & Organising, Analytical Thinking, Achieving Results, Relationship Building and Communicating & Influencing. Find out more here.
  • The Customer Service Dilemmas™ can be used for sifting front line customer service employees across a range of industry sectors like retail, supermarkets, banks and hospitality. Competencies assessed are Understanding Customer Needs, Delivering Quality Service, Convincing Others, Achieving Results and Dealing with Challenging Situations. Find out more here.
  • The Call Centre Dilemmas™ can be used to select Call Centre employees or Contact Centre staff across a wide range of industry sectors like BFSI, utility, travel-tourism, telecom, and other call centres. Competencies assessed are Understanding Customer Needs, Delivering Quality Service, Convincing Others and Dealing with Challenging Situations. Find out more here.
  • The Management Dilemmas™ is designed for managerial assessment across a range of industry sectors. The test is specifically aimed at people working in, or applying for, first line or middle management roles. Competencies assessed are Leading Others (Motivating Others and Making the Right Call), Planning and Coordinating (Making Plans and Organising Work), Managing Performance (Delivering Results and Improving Performance) and Managing Relationships (Working with Others and Handling Difficult Situations). Find out more here.
All SJTs in the Dilemmas™ Series are untimed assessments. However, respondents typically take 30 minutes to complete these assessments. Accessing the Dilemmas™ series requires a BPS Level A certification or The Dilemmas™ Series accreditation training.


Dilemma Series Sample Report
Administrative Dilemmas™
Graduate Dilemmas™
Customer Service Dilemmas™
Call Centre Dilemmas™
Management Dilemmas™

Reliability and Validity

As per Campion et al., SJTs typically have internal consistency of 0.57. Most of the reliability coefficients for the Dilemmas™ Series are around or higher than this figure. The reliability coefficients are reported to range from 0.55 to 0.75:
  • Administrative Dilemmas: 0.55
  • Graduate Dilemmas: 0.63
  • Customer Service Dilemmas: 0.75
  • Call Centre Dilemmas: 0.57
  • Management Dilemmas: 0.62)
The Dilemmas™ series have been validated in several ways, all exhibiting good validity. The Overall Judgement Scores on the Dilemmas™ Series were
  • compared at different levels of management to show a significant difference in scores between different levels of management(d=0.50),
  • moderately correlated with aptitude tests at 0.34
  • strongly correlated with assessment centre performance at 0.54
  • moderately correlated with line manager ratings at 0.28